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Working with MT940, SAP (FF_5) support 3 option when uploading file.

  • G – MT940 automatic recognized
  • S – MT940 with filed 86 structured
  • I – MT940 with field 86 unstructured

So what is difference between structured and unstructured MT940?

 

Structured

Unstructured

Name

 

MT 940 Customer Statement Message

61/6

N or F + 3 SWIFT standard code

N or F + 3 SWIFT standard code

86

Field code Alphanumeric 4 :86: Batch ID Alphanumeric 35 /PREF/

End-to-End reference Alphanumeric 35 /EREF/

Counterparty Name Alphanumeric 70 /BENM//NAME/

Creditor ID Alphanumeric 70 /CSID/

End-to-End reference Alphanumeric 35 /EREF/

Settlement Date Alphanumeric 10 /ISDT/

Mandate Reference Alphanumeric 35 /MARF/

Counterparty Name Alphanumeric 70 /ORDP//NAME/

Counterparty Identification Alphanumeric /ORDP//ID/

Format Description SWIFT MT940 21

Remittance Information Alphanumeric 140 /REMI/

In case of unstructured remittance information, which don’t contain any subfields and in particular no slashes.

Creditor Reference Type Code Alphanumeric 4 /REMI//CD/

Remittance information. All available transaction descriptions

Pros

Structured information in field 86

All in one

Cons

Less space

More space => Longer notes

 

Looking at these format as SAP perspective, I would prefer structured format. With more details, I am easier to deal with complicated requirement from customer. I can combine with Search string to look up specific information, update posting rule, or make necessary replacement of data.

Comparing to Multicash format, I don’t see the same benefit. If I use Unstructured format, then there is not much benefit comparing to multicash format.

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SAP DME file missing record

If you are working with SAP DMEE, for some payment run some instruction records are missing any you don’t know why.

You have 2 items in payment proposal with same information, bank, and payment method.

But only one record is sent out to bank.

 

If you encounter the same issue. Firstly you need to check the sorting/key field setting DMEE file.

Here is setting in my system

FPAYH-HKTID ==> ID for Account Details

FPAYHX-WAERS ==> ISO currency code

FPAYH-KOINH ==> Account Holder Name

FPAYHX-UBKNT ==> Our Account Number at the Bank

FPAYH-ZBNKN ==> Bank Account Number of the Payee

So if you pay to the same vendor in one payment run, the key field will be duplicate so it would be one record remained.

The fix for this? I don’t have access to test, however, it may be okay if you add sequential number of each item:

FPAYH-LFDNR Sequential Payment Number

If you have tested it, please let me know if comment section :-). Pls!

As functional consultant, I usually work with functional specs.

My task is to review functional specs.

 
 

Also, my favorite dictionary is Golden Dict, which is a successor of Stardict – a very popular open source dictionary software.

 
 

So I create 2 dictionary for my need to validate all content in documents.

First dictionary is table definition, which give you table name.

 
 

Second dictionary is field definition, which give you field name, and some field attributes.

 
 

When I press “Ctrl+C+C”, definition of the highlighted table/field popup.

This utility enable me to work on document without open SAPGui to lookup for field/table definition.

 

You can see attached file.

 


 



 
 

If you are using the same dictionary software(stardict, golden dict, or any report that support stardict format) I would like to share with you the dictionary files.

Follow below link and download the files.

Download.

14 short stories worth reading, feeling and forwarding to all those dear to you ..

 

1. Fall and Rise

 

Today, when I slipped on the wet tile floor a boy in a wheelchair caught me before I slammed my head on the ground. He said, “Believe it or not, that’s almost exactly how I injured my back 3 years ago .

 

2. A father’s advice

 

Today, my father told me, “Just go for it and give it a try! You don’t have to be a professional to build a successful product. Amateurs started Google and Apple. Professionals built the Titanic

 

3. The power of uniqueness.

 

Today, I asked my mentor – a very successful business man in his 70’s – what his top 3 tips are for success. He smiled and said, “Read something no one else is reading, think something no one else is thinking, and do something no one else is doing.

 

4. Looking Back

 

Today, I interviewed my grandmother for part of a research paper I’m working on for my Psychology class. When I asked her to define success in her own words, she said, “Success is when you look back at your life and the memories make you smile.

 

5. Try and U shall know

 

I am blind by birth. When I was 8 years old, I wanted to play baseball. I asked my father- “Dad, can I play baseball?” He said “You’ll never know until you try.” When I was a teenager, I asked him, – “Dad Can I become a surgeon?”. He replied “Son, you’ll never know until you try.” Today I am a Surgeon, just because I tried!

 

6. GOODNESS & GRATITUDE

 

Today, after a 72 hour shift at the fire station, a woman ran up to me at the grocery store and gave me a hug. When I tensed up, she realized I didn’t recognize her. She let go with tears of joy in her eyes and the most sincere smile and said, “On 9-11-2001, you carried me out of the World Trade Center.”

 

7. LOVE CONQUERS PAIN

 

Today, after I watched my dog get run over by a car, I sat on the side of the road holding him and crying. And just before he died, he licked the tears off my face.

 

8. A DOOR CLOSES TO OPEN ANOTHER

 

Today at 7AM, I woke up feeling ill, but decided I needed the money, so I went into work. At 3PM I got laid off. On my drive home I got a flat tire. When I went into the trunk for the spare, it was flat too. A man in a BMW pulled over, gave me a ride, we chatted, and then he offered me a job. I start tomorrow.

 

9. LOOKING BACK

 

Today, as my father, three brothers, and two sisters stood around my mother’s hospital bed, my mother uttered her last coherent words before she died. She simply said, “I feel so loved right now. We should have gotten together like this more often.”

 

10. AFFECTION

 

Today, I kissed my dad on the forehead as he passed away in a small hospital bed. About 5 seconds after he passed, I realized it was the first time I had given him a kiss since I was a little boy.

 

11. INNOCENCE

 

Today, in the cutest voice, my 8-year-old daughter asked me to start recycling. I chuckled and asked, “Why?” She replied, “So you can help me save the planet.” I chuckled again and asked, “And why do you want to save the planet?” “Because that’s where I keep all my stuff,” she said.

 

12. JOY

 

Today, when I witnessed a 27-year-old breast cancer patient laughing hysterically at her 2-year-old daughter’s antics, I suddenly realized that I need to stop complaining about my life and start celebrating it again.

 

13. KINDNESS

 

Today, a boy in a wheelchair saw me desperately struggling on crutches with my broken leg and offered to carry my backpack and books for me. He helped me all the way across campus to my class and as he was leaving he said, “I hope you feel better soon.”.

 

14. SHARING

 

Today, I was traveling in Kenya and I met a refugee from Zimbabwe. He said he hadn’t eaten anything in over 3 days and looked extremely skinny and unhealthy. Then my friend offered him the rest of the sandwich he was eating. The first thing the man said was, “We can share it.”

Here are the rules: I’ve been at zero a few times, come back a few times, and done it over and over. I’ve started entire new careers. People who knew me then, don’t know me now. And so on.

I’ve had to change careers several times. Sometimes because my interests changed. Sometimes because all bridges have been burned beyond recognition, sometimes because I desperately needed money.

And sometimes just because I hated everyone in my old career or they hated me.

There are other ways to reinvent yourself, so take what I say with a grain of salt. This is what worked for me.

I’ve seen it work for maybe a few hundred other people. Through interviews, through people writing me letters, through the course of the past 20 years. You can try it or not.

Before you start this list I want to remind you: be gentle on yourself. That is always the first rule.

A) Reinvention never stops.
Every day you reinvent yourself. You’re always in motion. But you decide every day: forward or backward.

B) You start from scratch.
Every label you claim you have from before is just vanity. You were a doctor? You were Ivy League? You had millions? You had a family? Nobody cares. You lost everything. You’re a zero. Don’t try to say you’re anything else.

C) You need a mentor.
Else, you’ll sink to the bottom. Someone has to show you how to move and breathe. But don’t worry about finding a mentor (see below).

D) Three types of mentors

  1. Direct. Someone who is in front of you who will show you how they did it. What is “it”? Wait. By the way, mentors aren’t like that old Japanese guy in “The Karate Kid.” Ultimately most mentors will hate you.
  2. Indirect. Books. Movies. You can outsource 90 percent of mentorship to books and other materials. 200-500 books equals one good mentor. People ask me, “What is a good book to read?” I never know the answer. There are 200-500 good books to read. I would throw in inspirational books. Whatever are your beliefs, underline them through reading every day.
  3. Everything is a mentor. If you are a zero, and have passion for reinvention, then everything you look at will be a metaphor for what you want to do. The tree you see, with roots you don’t, with underground water that feeds it, is a metaphor for computer programming if you connect the dots. And everything you look at, you will connect the dots.

E) Don’t worry if you don’t have passion for anything.
You have passion for your health. Start there. Take baby steps. You don’t need a passion to succeed. Do what you do with love and success is a natural symptom.

F) Time it takes to reinvent yourself: five years.
Here’s a description of the five years:

  • Year One: you’re flailing and reading everything and just starting to DO.
  • Year Two: you know who you need to talk to and network with. You’re Doing every day. You finally know what the monopoly board looks like in your new endeavors.
  • Year Three: you’re good enough to start making money. It might not be a living yet.
  • Year Four: you’re making a good living
  • Year Five: you’re making wealth

Sometimes I get frustrated in years 1-4. I say, “why isn’t it happening yet?” and I punch the floor and hurt my hand and throw a coconut on the floor in a weird ritual. That’s okay. Just keep going. Or stop and pick a new field. It doesn’t matter. Eventually you’re dead and then it’s hard to reinvent yourself.

G) If you do this faster or slower then you are doing something wrong.
Google is a good example.

H) It’s not about the money. But money is a decent measuring stick.
When people say “it’s not about the money” they should make sure they have a different measuring stick.
“What about just doing what you love?” There will be many days when you don’t love what you are doing. If you are doing it just for love then it will take much much longer than five years.
Happiness is just a positive perception from our brain. Some days you will be unhappy. Our brain is a tool we use. It’s not who we are.

I) When can you say, “I do X!” where X is your new career?
Today.

J) When can I start doing X?
Today. If you want to paint, then buy a canvas and paints today, start buying 500 books one at a time, and start painting. If you want to write do these three things:

  • Read
  • Write
  • Take your favorite author and type your favorite story of his word for word. Wonder to yourself why he wrote each word. He’s your mentor today.

If you want to start a business, start spec-ing out the idea for your business. Reinvention starts today. Every day.

K) How do I make money?
By year three you’ve put in 5,000-7,000 hours. That’s good enough to be in the top 200-300 in the world in anything. The top 200 in almost any field makes a living.

By year three you will know how to make money. By year four you will scale that up and make a living. Some people stop at year four.

L) By year five you’re in the top 30-50 so can make wealth.
M) What is “it”? How do I know what I should do?
Whatever area you feel like reading 500 books about. Go to the bookstore and find it. If you get bored three months later go back to the bookstore.

It’s okay to get disillusioned. That’s what failure is about. Success is better than failure but the biggest lessons are found in failure.

Very important: There’s no rush. You will reinvent yourself many times in an interesting life. You will fail to reinvent many times. That’s fun also.

Many reinventions make your life a book of stories instead of a textbook.
Some people want the story of their life to be a textbook. For better or worse, mine is a book of stories.

That’s why reinvention happens every day.

N) The choices you make today will be in your biography tomorrow.
Make interesting choices and you will have an interesting biography.

N1) The choices you make today will be in your biology tomorrow.

O) What if I like something obscure? Like biblical archaeology or 11th-century warfare?

Repeat all of the steps above, and then in year five you will make wealth. We have no idea how. Don’t look to find the end of the road when you are still at the very first step.
P) What if my family wants me to be an accountant?
How many years of your life did you promise your family? Ten years? Your whole life? Then wait until the next life. The good thing is: you get to choose.

Choose freedom over family. Freedom over preconceptions. Freedom over government. Freedom over people-pleasing. Then you will be pleased.

Q) My mentor wants me to do it HIS way.
That’s fine. Learn HIS way. Then do it YOUR way. With respect.
Hopefully nobody has a gun to your head. Then you have to do it their way until the gun is put down.

R) My spouse is worried about who will support/take care of kids?
Then after you work 16 hours a day, seven days a week being a janitor, use your spare time to reinvent.

Someone who is reinventing ALWAYS has spare time. Part of reinvention is collecting little bits and pieces of time and re-carving them the way you want them to be.

S) What if my friends think I’m crazy?
What friends?

T) What if I want to be an astronaut?
That’s not a reinvention. That’s a specific job. If you like “outer space” there are many careers. Richard Branson wanted to be an astronaut and started Virgin Galactic.

U) What if I like to go out drinking and partying?
Read this post again in a year.

V) What if I’m busy cheating on my husband or wife or betraying a partner?
Read this post again in two or three years when you are broke and jobless and nobody likes you.

W) What if I have no skills at all?
Read “B” again.

X) What if I have no degree or I have a useless degree?
Read “B” again.

Y) What if I have to focus on paying down my debt and mortgage?
Read “R” again.

Z) How come I always feel like I’m on the outside looking in?
Albert Einstein was on the outside looking in. Nobody in the establishment would even hire him.

Everyone feels like a fraud at some point. The highest form of creativity is born out of skepticism.

AA) I can’t read 500 books. What one book should I read for inspiration?
Give up.

BB) What if I’m too sick to reinvent?
Reinvention will boost every healthy chemical in your body: serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin. Keep moving forward and you might not get healthy but you will get healthier. Don’t use health as an excuse.
Finally, reinvent your health first. Sleep more hours. Eat better. Exercise. These are key steps to reinvention.

CC) What if my last partner screwed me and I’m still suing him?
Stop litigating and never think about him again. Half the problem was you, not him.

DD) What if I’m going to jail?
Perfect. Reread “B.” Read a lot of books in jail.

EE) What if I’m shy?
Make your weaknesses your strengths. Introverts listen better, focus better, and have ways of being more endearing.

FF) What if I can’t wait five years?
If you plan on being alive in five years then you might as well start today.

GG) How should I network?
Make concentric circles. You’re at the middle.
The next circle is friends and family.
The next circle is online communities.
The circle after that is meetups and coffees.
The circle after that is conferences and thought leaders.
The circle after that is mentors.
The circle after that is customers and wealth-creators.
Start making your way through the circles.

HH) What happens when I have ego about what I do?
In 6-12 months you’ll be back at “B”

II) What if I’m passionate about two things? What if I can’t decide?
Combine them and you’ll be the best in the world at the combination.

JJ) What if I’m so excited I want to teach what I’m learning?
Start teaching on YouTube. Start with an audience of one and see if it builds up.

KK) What if I want to make money while I sleep?
In year four, start outsourcing what you do.

LL) How do I meet mentors and thought leaders?
Once you have enough knowledge (after 100-200 books), write down 10 ideas for 20 different potential mentors.

None of them will respond. Write down 10 more ideas for 20 new mentors. Repeat every week.

Put together a newsletter for everyone who doesn’t respond. Keep repeating until someone responds. Blog about your learning efforts. Build community around you being an expert.

MM) What if I can’t come up with ideas?
Then keep practicing coming up with ideas. The idea muscle atrophies. You have to build it up.

It’s hard for me to touch my toes if I haven’t been doing it every day. I have to do it every day for a while before I can easily touch my toes. Don’t expect to come up with good ideas on day one.

NN) What else should I read?
AFTER books, read websites, forums, magazines. But most of that is garbage.

OO) What if I do everything you say but it still doesn’t seem like it’s working?
It will work. Just wait. Keep reinventing every day.

Don’t try and find the end of the road. You can’t see it in the fog. But you can see the next step and you do know that if you take that next step eventually you get to the end of the road.

PP) What if I get depressed?
Sit in silence for one hour a day. You need to get back to your core.
If you think this sounds stupid then don’t do it. Stay depressed.

QQ) What if I don’t have time to sit in silence?
Then sit in silence for two hours a day. This is not meditation. This is just sitting.

RR) What if I get scared?
Sleep 8-9 hours a day and never gossip. Sleep is the No. 1 key to successful health. It’s not the only key. It’s just No. 1. Some people write to me and say, “I only need four hours of sleep” or “in my country sleeping means laziness.” Well, those people will fail and die young.

What about gossip? The brain biologically wants to have 150 friends. Then when you are with one of your friends you can gossip about any of the other 150. If you don’t have 150 friends then the brain wants to read gossip magazines until it thinks it has 150 friends.

Don’t be as stupid as your brain.

SS) What if I keep feeling like nothing ever works out for me?
Spend 10 minutes a day practicing gratitude. Don’t suppress the fear. Notice the anger.

But also allow yourself to be grateful for the things you do have. Anger is never inspirational but gratitude is. Gratitude is the bridge between your world and the parallel universe where all creative ideas live.

TT) What if I have to deal with personal bullshit all the time?
Find new people to be around.

Someone who is reinventing herself will constantly find people to try and bring her down. The brain is scared of reinvention because it might not be safe.

Biologically, the brain wants you to be safe and reinvention is a risk. So it will throw people in your path who will try to stop you.
Learn how to say “no.”

UU) What if I’m happy at my cubicle job?
Good luck.

VV) Why should I trust you – you’ve failed so many times?
Don’t trust me.

WW) Will you be my mentor?
You’ve just read this post.

The standard report vendor/customer open items in SAP support to display additional information.

By default, you can switch between ALV list and Basic list. ALV is more excel oriented, which you can easily extract and work within Excel. Basic list give some additional information, this layout is convenient for print out. Sometimes, instead of what you need, you see basic list just give asterisk symbols.

No vendor name

 

The secret setting is to change the sort field and control break (Don’t forget this *):

Change sort order

You can add more field for sorting, but remember to keep “Company code” and “Account” at highest level.

After click “Copy” button, you’ll get what you need. Of course, the same step can be applied for customer line item report.
Result

Quyền im lặng

Bài báo hay. Mình lưu lại đây, lúc nào rảnh rỗi lại đọc :).

Những ngày đầu tiên khi mới sang Mỹ học luật, trên đường đi bộ từ nhà tới trường, tôi nhận thấy là các ngôi nhà hầu hết không có hàng rào và các chấn song sắt kiên cố như tôi vẫn thấy ở Việt Nam. Vì biết nước Mỹ là một quốc gia có tỷ lệ tội phạm và số người ngồi tù thuộc nhóm đứng đầu thế giới, nên tôi thắc mắc nhưng không thể lý giải được điều đó.

Tôi mang vấn đề này hỏi giáo sư của mình và được ông trả lời như sau: “Chúng tôi thừa nhận một sự thật là cái ác đã, đang và sẽ luôn song hành với cái thiện chừng nào nhân loại còn tồn tại. Chúng tôi biết là không có một giải pháp nào có thể giải quyết được mọi mục đích đặt ra. Do đó, khi soạn luật chúng tôi xem xét các mục đích rồi xác định thứ tự ưu tiên cho các mục đích đó. Đối với vấn đề tội phạm, ưu tiên của chúng tôi là làm cho những người dân yên tâm là họ được bảo vệ và nhờ đó các nguồn lực, thay vì được dùng để biến mỗi căn nhà thành một pháo đài thì sẽ được đầu tư cho lực lượng thực thi luật pháp. Nói cách khác, chúng tôi làm luật không vì một nhóm nhỏ người xấu mà vì đa số người tốt. Sự an tâm và phát triển của những người dân sẽ mang lại nguồn lực cho việc bảo vệ pháp luật. Cái anh nhìn thấy là kết quả của triết lý lập pháp đó”.

Khi quan sát những trao đổi qua lại trên Quốc hội về quyền im lặng của những người là đối tượng của điều tra hình sự, tôi tự hỏi các đại biểu Quốc hội nghĩ thế nào về mục đích của quy định về quyền im lặng và thứ tự ưu tiên của các mục đích đó. Các vị đại biểu Quốc hội có quân hàm tướng trong lực lượng công an thì cho rằng, quyền im lặng sẽ ngăn trở việc phá án của lực lượng này. Họ cũng cho rằng, với điều kiện kinh tế, cơ sở hạ tầng và dân trí của Việt Nam hiện nay chưa phù hợp với việc quy định im lặng. Một vị luật sư là đại biểu khi phản bác lại thì cho rằng: “Quyền không khai báo các nước làm hết, còn mình lại không làm là hạ thấp quyền của người dân Việt Nam”. Tôi nhận thấy các cuộc trao đổi như vậy không đề cập tới mục đích của quyền im lặng là gì và thứ tự ưu tiên nào trong các mục đích nên được áp dụng.

Quyền của một người được tự bảo vệ đối với các hoạt động tố tụng hình sự chống lại mình là một quyền cơ bản mà có lẽ không có ai trong chúng ta nghi ngờ. Quyền đó được cụ thể hoá trong các quyền khác của người bị điều tra: quyền cung cấp bằng chứng để chứng minh sự vô tội của mình, quyền có luật sư và hỗ trợ về pháp lý, quyền khi ra toà được đề nghị thay đổi hội đồng xét xử khi thấy rằng hội đồng xét xử đó có định kiến sẵn với mình và quan trọng nhất là quyền im lặng.

Tại sao quyền im lặng lại quan trọng? Trong quá trình điều tra có sự không tương xứng giữa cơ quan điều tra và người bị điều tra. Sự bất tương xứng này thể hiện ở nhân lực, phương tiện, các thông tin được thu thập, kiến thức chuyên môn, thậm chí là cả khả năng sử dụng bạo lực của mỗi bên. Các cán bộ điều tra có các phương tiện để thu thập bằng chứng, có quyền không cho người bị điều tra biết được các thông tin mà họ đã có, có kiến thức chuyên sâu về pháp lý hình sự và kỹ thuật thẩm vấn… Ngược lại, người bị điều tra, luôn yếu thế hơn cán bộ điều tra vì trong nhiều trường hợp, họ bị giam cách ly khỏi thế giới bên ngoài, không có các kiến thức pháp lý về hình sự, và không biết liệu các kỹ thuật dẫn dụ trong hỏi cung liệu có đúng pháp luật không.

Ở giai đoạn đầu tiên tại Anh (nơi sinh ra quyền này), mục đích của quyền là nhằm ngăn chặn việc sử dụng tra tấn để cưỡng ép người bị điều tra khai báo để chống lại chính mình. Dù hiện nay nguy cơ bị tra tấn không còn hiện hữu nhiều ở các nước phương Tây thì quyền này vẫn có ý nghĩa rất quan trọng như lúc ban đầu. Lý do là vì người điều tra có thể dùng nhiều kỹ thuật không công bằng để chứng minh tội của người bị điều tra. Ví dụ, việc trích dẫn một câu nói không đầy đủ, tách rời hoàn toàn khỏi ngữ cảnh nói có thể khiến câu bị trích có nghĩa ngược hoàn toàn với nguyên bản. Cách thức này đang được sử dụng rộng rãi trong cuộc sống từ chính trị, ngoại giao, báo chí, đến mạng xã hội chứ không chỉ bó hẹp trong phạm vi điều tra hình sự.

Người bị điều tra có thể chống lại việc đó bằng nhiều cách, tuy nhiên cách nào cũng đòi hỏi những kiến thức và kỹ năng nhất định. Trong tất cả các cách để bảo vệ mình, im lặng tới khi có sự tham gia của luật sư là cách thức bảo vệ đơn giản nhất và có thể áp dụng cho mọi người, mọi tầng lớp dân trí, ở mọi nơi, với mọi cơ sở hạ tầng đang có. Do đó, theo quan điểm của tôi, càng ở các nước điều kiện hạ tầng và dân trí còn nhiều bất cập như Việt Nam thì quyền im lặng lại càng cần thiết vì nó là công cụ bảo vệ dễ được áp dụng nhất cho mọi người. Và thực tế đã chứng minh là quyền này được các quốc gia khác bắt đầu áp dụng từ thế kỷ 16 với điều kiện kinh tế và dân trí thấp hơn Việt Nam hiện nay rất nhiều.

Vấn đề thứ hai là thứ tự ưu tiên nào cho các mục đích mà chúng ta nhắm tới khi lập pháp về vấn đề này: bảo vệ người vô tội khỏi các oan sai hay tìm ra một người chịu trách nhiệm về tội ác đó. Chúng ta biết rằng một người phạm tội thì chỉ có một, nhưng những người bị tình nghi và điều tra sẽ rất nhiều. Sau khi điều tra hết những nghi can đó, chúng ta có 50% khả năng tìm ra một ai đó chịu trách nhiệm. Nhưng không có gì là chắc chắn rằng người chịu trách nhiệm đúng là người thực sự đã gây tội ác. Như vậy, số người vô tội cần được bảo vệ trong một vụ điều tra hình sự lớn hơn nhiều so với kẻ phạm tội phải bị bắt.

Nếu như tôi có quyền, và nếu các đại biểu Quốc hội lắng nghe lời một cử tri, tôi sẽ đặt việc bảo vệ người vô tội khỏi các oan sai lên hàng đầu. Nói một cách khác, tôi ủng hộ việc áp dụng quyền im lặng cho những người bị điều tra vì quyền đó là công cụ đơn giản nhất mà bất kể một người nào, dù trình độ văn hoá hay địa vị xã hội ra sao, dù ở đâu và với phương tiện nghèo nàn đến mấy cũng áp dụng được. Vì sao lại như vậy? Vì tôi tin rằng số người tốt đông hơn rất nhiều những kẻ xấu và những người tốt, những người vô tội xứng đáng được luật pháp bảo vệ. Tất nhiên, quyền im lặng không bao giờ là tuyệt đối, người bị điều tra có quyền im lặng tới khi họ có được các công cụ bảo vệ khác mà pháp luật cung cấp hoặc tạo điều kiện cho họ.